Once in a life time something is discovered that extends the boundaries of knowledge and changes the world forever.
THE TRUTH PARTY THE PRIMARY CAUSE OF DYSLEXIA
My name is Stanley Sutton I am bilingual my first language is Greek and my second is English and I am dyslexic in both.
Dyslexia Talk London 6th November 2012 at the Tristan Bates Theatre,
I started my research into dyslexia to help my daughter after noticing that her eye movements were scanning text from right to left. To me his meant that she was scanning the text backwards. I asked myself could it be that the direction of the text was responsible for her difficulties.
For Chinese Arabic, and Hebrew readers the forward direction of reading text is from right to left. for Anglo and Germanic languages the forward direction for reading text is left to right. The idea of two directions intrigued me. This lead me to look at the development of the first alphabet. I started my research which I called The Primary Cause of Dyslexia. A few people have objected to this title and for this reason I offer you this explanation. In the early days of dyslexic research, dyslexia was known as word blindness, word blindness clinics were established in the UK.
If you would like more information on this please refer to The Evolution of research on dyslexia by Gayan. This document will give you a complete picture of dyslexic research up to 2001.
Orton the founding father of dyslexia research coined the phrase "Strephosymbolia" this is Greek for twisted symbols. I believe that "Strephosymbolia"is a better description than the word dyslexia which is also Greek for difficulty with words.
In reality the word dyslexia in meaningless. Basically it is saying you have difficulty with reading and writing.
I hope that every one agrees that no one can read a book with their eyes closed. There is no phonological signal transmitted from the pages that can be read phonologically. This means reading is primarily a visual process. Therefore sight is primary if you can’t see the text you will not be able to read it. Every thing else associated with reading and writing is secondary. Time and time again subjects have complained that they can’t see the text or that it appeared to be moving or distorted which explains the early use of term word blindness.
As sight is primary if the subject has subconscious involuntary right to left eye movements they will not be able to readily scan left to right text.
The average reader reads at 250 to 350 words per minute, at this speed the reader skim the words and because they have instant word recognition in memory they are able to absorb the meaning of the text.
This posses the question how does a non dyslexic person enter and retain words to memory that enable them to instantly recognise the words on a page. I have asked many eminent people this question and nobody knows how the data is entered or how it is retained or how the interconnection needed for processing language are formed. In fact today there is no expert that can explain how the brain works.
If that is true then why do the same experts who advise T.V. programmes and government ministers claim that dyslexics have a neurological condition that is life long and incurable, that affects the persons ability to match the sight of the word with the sound or phonetic signature of the word .
Either they know the cause of dyslexia and have known for some years but are reluctant to declare it publicly, or they genuinely do not know in which case the statement that dyslexia is a neurological condition is illusionary.
It is an assumption that has not been proven and the evidence does not support this illusionary hypothesis." The lack of a breakthrough in 100 years of research is not acceptable as it affects the lives of 12 million adults and 1.2 million children in this country.
Einstein defined insanity as "Doing the same thing over and over again
expecting to get a different results.
It seem to me that the establishment forcibly opposes any attempt to
investigate a visual cause for dyslexia. The great and the good close ranks
and if they can't discredit the research they ignore it, by contrast they are
unable to prove their own hypothesis and have in recent years suggested
that they may never find the answer.
Some eminent professors have suggested that dyslexia dose not exist, even
politicians (Graham Stringer MP) has stated that the existence of dyslexia is a myth.These people are wrong. Dyslexia dose exist and i am about to present you with the evidence to prove it.
In 1981 Professor George Pavlides in a series of carefully controlled studies presented evidence that eye movements are causal in dyslexic subjects, and that the difference in dyslexics was above and beyond textual difficulties or being a slow reader.
He used dyslexics, backward readers, and advanced readers, and found
differences in terms of increased regressions and longer fixations in the dyslexics against all other groups.
More importantly he then goes on to describe a study where dyslexics were required to track a moving light in a left to right and a right to left direction.This he argues is a pure sequencing task, and he found
similarities in the relative performance of the dyslexics, backward, and
advanced readers to the reading task itself.
He concluded that this data shows the dyslexics have increased regressions and longer fixations in a simple light tracking sequential task not involving reading, verbal material or text.Confirming that the differences are primary and not a result of reading difficulties.
It gives me great pleasure to confirm that my findings corroborate Professor Pavlides research findings of 1981. My research has established the existence of a right to left orientation preference. Any person with this preference will have an excessive number of regression and longer fixations when reading left to right text and would be diagnosed as dyslexic.
Professer Wydell at Brunel University-Wydell and Butterworth 1999
reported a case of a 16 year old English/ Japanese bilingual boy with English speaking parents, who is dyslexic in English but not in Japanese.
In fact his ability is superior to that of his Japanese contemporaries.As this is the case he can not have a neurological condition or he would be dyslexic in both languages.There is something else going on.This is not the only case of Japanese is taught to dyslexic children, at Millfield school in Somerset, based on research by a teacher at the school Mr Harwood.He reported that dyslexics found Japanese more accessible than European languages, he states that dyslexic children do performe particularly well in Japanese exams.
Ms Lundayof the USA has a 12 year old son who is dyslexic in English, she sent her son to a school that required all students to study Japanese as part of the curriculum. the results surprised her, the boy now 13 years old has excelled in his Japanese studies. If you want to check this evidence please go to Google.
Professor Li-Han Tan in china has compared MRI scans of students raised reading Chinese and compared those finding with similar studies of the brain scans of students raised reading English. He states that the reader uses different parts of the brain depending on the writing system that they are born into. What appears to be happening is that different writing systems require the use of different areas of the brain. Chinese consists of characters or pictograms and is read vertically from right to left. English is made up of letters that make up words read from left to right. This research cast doubt on existing research that has stated that to process language it must be entered in a specific area of the left hemisphere of the brain and the whole dyslexia deficit hypothesis is based on this assumption. They say that because Chinese is not made up of letters the Chinese are not using the same phonological process and that this accounts for the difference.
This is not so let me clear this up for you
This is the Chinese character for tea in Mandarin it is pronounced CHA, in Arabic, Russian, Indian, and Greek it is pronounce as CHAI. If I were to ask for a cup CHAI in China they would even with my English accent know exactly what I had ask for. The phonological signature is virtually identical so the difference is between the Chinese symbol and the written word for tea it is in fact a visual recognition problem not and auditory one. If you look closely at this character you will notice that it is virtually pallindromic this means if you fold it in half it is a mirror image of the other half .
Why are Chinese characters predominately palindromic?So they can be scanned in ether direction and are visually correct. I am going to show you a pictogram you will recogniseit on sight. This is a saw it is facing left to right to turn this into a pallindromic character you would need a second saw running right to left like this, the pictogram is visually correct but if you look at the word saw in the left to right picture you can see that it would be sequenced as WAS from right to left and not SAW. For the word to be pallindromic it would need to look like this sawas so it could be sequenced correctly in both directions.
Sequencing is extremely important. All artificial brains have to receive the data in sequence for instance when using a calculator to add or subtract say 4 –1 x 2 +2
the answer would come back as 8 but if you sent the equation out of sequence say
4 +2 x 2 –1 that would come back as 11. This shows that a brain can only interpret the data it is sent . The answer it gives you is based on the information you give it. Many dyslexics reverse letters and transpose numbers like b and d p and q w for m . As your brain is impartial it can not lie to you, it is telling you exactly what your visual system sent to it.
The question is how is this possible? It possible because the person is scanning the text from right to left.
For your brain to be able to retain spellings to memory you must capture a correct visual sequential image. The Chinese worked all this out in 1500BC the next development was by the Phoenicians who created the first alphabet, this had 22 letters and was read from right to left it is believed that Hebrew, Arabic, Greek, Latin and Etruscan developed from this alphabet. It is not common knowledge that all these languages where originally written from right to left. The key to this intriguing mystery is the development of the Greek alphabet
Text is taught with disregard to visual preference, my research into the historic evidence shows that the forward direction of text was originally written from right to left. As soon as text crossed over from the middle east into Europe a problem was identified by the Greeks, the majority of Greeks were unable to visually cope with right to left text, consequentially the Greeks introduced Boustrophedon, in which the first line was written from right to left and the next line from left to right down the page. The introduction of Boustrophedon confirms two different scanning groups within the population.
The Greek’s then altered the characters of the alphabet so that they were palindromic - of the 24 letters in the Greek alphabet 16 letters are Palindromic Α Δ Η Θ Ι Λ Μ Ξ Ο Π Τ Υ Φ Χ Ψ Ω and the 8 letters Β Γ Ε Ζ Κ Ν Ρ Σ are not, however theses do not cause any distortion when combined with other letters in the alphabet, enabling Greeks to be read in either direction.
It progressed in this format for 300 years up until 500 BC. Resulting in a change of direction for reading text to left to right. This left to right format continues through to the present day.
However it cannot be ignored that there remained a minority group of people who had been reading text as right to left scanners without problems during the intervening 300 years, clearly identifying the two different groups of scanners. These two groups of scanners still exist
This is the strongest indication that letters are actually directional.
The Lateens copied the Greeks and also introduced Boustrophedon but for a shorter period of time, they to changed the direction of written text to left to right .
The later development of the Roman alphabet has made it impossible to detect right to left scanning using conventional teaching methods and as a result these scanners are now diagnosed as dyslexic. If text were presented to these people, taking account of their orientation preference, they would learn to read at the same speed if not faster than a left to right reader. After years of frustration of being unable to read, write and spell the dyslexic sufferer develops symptoms that are attributed to dyslexia instead of the consequences of suffering dyslexia.
For the first time in 3000 years this has now come to the surface and I give you a new definition for dyslexia.
The definition of visual Dyslexia
A person who has a genetic predisposition, because of subconscious involuntary eye movement, to scan their field of vision from right to left. This is an inherited genetic variant that exacerbates all other problems associated with learning when reading left to right text.